Juvenile Pyoderma, Puppy Strangles

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Juvenile Pyoderma, Puppy Strangles

Postby malernee » Sat Sep 16, 2006 6:48 pm

(Juvenile Pyoderma, Puppy Strangles)

General Information
Juvenile cellulitis is a skin disease of puppies from 3 to 18 weeks of age. It occurs most commonly in short-haired breeds, such as Dachshunds, Golden Retrievers, and Pointers. Although some cases are due to infection with Staphylococcus, the causative bacteria are not found in many cases.
Skin changes are concentrated around the face and head, especially at the junction of the skin and mucous membranes. Frequently the ears are involved. The skin appears red and moist, and serum or pus may seep from the surface. Tan to yellow crusts may form over the sores. Hair loss results from damage to the follicles. Many puppies become depressed, run a fever, and refuse to eat. Lymph nodes in the neck and shoulder area become enlarged and sometimes painful.

<<J Am Vet Med Assoc 195[11] : 1609-1611 Dec 1'89 Reports of Retrospective Studies 11 Refs

1Stephen D. White, DVM; Rodney A. W. Rosychuk, DVM; Laurie J. Stewart, VMD; Lysanne Cape, DVM; Barbara J. Hughes, VMD
1Dept of Clin Sci, College of Vet Med & Biomed Sci, Colorado State Univ, Fort Collins, CO 80523

-Retrospective study of 15 puppies with juvenile cellulitis [juvenile pyoderma, puppy strangles] seen between 1979 and 1988.

PREDISPOSITIONS. Ages ranged from 3-12 weeks [median = 6.8]. There were 8 males and 7 females. The most common breeds were golden retrievers [4/15], miniature dachshunds [2/15], Siberian huskies [2/15--littermates], and mixed breed dogs [2/15-- littermates].

HISTORY/CLINICAL SIGNS included lymphadenopathy [14/15]-- mandibular lymphadenopathy [14/15], prescapular lymphadenopathy [4/15], and generalized lymphadenopathy [3/15]; skin lesions [10/15] ie., edema, pustules, papules, or crusts of the periocular [7/10], chin or muzzle [6/10], ears [4/10], perioral [3/10], or abdomen and thorax [3/10] regions; lethargy [8/15]; otitis externa [5/15]; fever [4/15]; arthralgia [4/15]--multiple joints [3/4]; pain on opening the mouth [2/15]; anorexia [2/15]; and dyspnea [1/15].

LABORATORY FINDINGS included anemia [6/6] and leukocytosis and neutrophilia [4/6].

CYTOLOGY. Lymph node aspirates showed suppurative lymphadenitis with neutrophilic infiltrate [3/3] and few bacteria [1/3]. Pustules or abscesses showed many neutrophils, no bacteria [6/6]. Joints [3/4 dogs with joint pain] showed suppurative arthritis with no bacteria [3/3].

BACTERIAL CULTURE. Draining lesions grew coagulase positive Staphylococcus spp [2/2]. Intact abscesses or lymph nodes had no growth [4/4] with 3/4 being given antibiotics. Joints had no growth [3/3] with all 3 being given antibiotics.

TREATMENT consisted of antibiotics alone or combined with prednisone.
ANTIBIOTICS [15/15]. Antibiotics were initially given without prednisone to 12/15 dogs. The antibiotics most commonly used were cephalosporins [9/15] and amoxicillin [2/15].
PREDNISONE [11/15]. Antibiotics and prednisone were used initially in 3/11 dogs. Prednisone was added after 0.5-3 weeks of antibiotic therapy in 8/11 dogs. The initial dose was most commonly 2.2 mg/kg/day [8/11] and the dose was decreased over the treatment period.
DURATION OF THERAPY. Treatment was continued ~1 week beyond resolution of clinical signs.

OUTCOME [follow up periods not indicated].
ANTIBIOTICS ALONE resulted in resolution of clinical signs with no recurrence in only 4/12 dogs. The duration of treatment ranged from 1-3.5 weeks. No response after 0.5-3 weeks of antibiotic therapy was seen in 8/12 and prednisone was subsequently added to treatment [8/8].
ANTIBIOTIC AND PREDNISONE THERAPY resulted in resolution of clinical signs in 11/11 and the duration of treatment ranged from 1.5-6 weeks. Recurrence of clinical signs was seen in 1/11, and the dog subsequently developed hypertrophic osteodystrophy and was euthanized.
Arthritis also resolved with treatment in 4/4 dogs.

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