The Science Has Been Done

Issues involving dog vaccines. Questions, answers, theories, and evidence.
Are annual vaccinations needed, harmful and are they required by law?

The Science Has Been Done

Postby guest » Thu Sep 25, 2003 2:57 pm ... 20Done.htm

The Science Has Been Done

References are provided to support the following

1. Duration of Immunity studies on large numbers of animals  have been done.
2. Endogenous antibody interference with vaccines, blocks re-administered
   vaccines from enhancing immunity.
3. Dogs over 8 weeks of age do not develop any disease from canine corona
4. Dogs are at low risk of developing Leptospirosis in Texas.
5. We do not have Lyme disease in Texas.
6. Vaccines can cause Injection Site Fibrosarcomas, or Vaccine Associated
    Sarcomas VAS. Non- Adjuvanted Vaccines are safer than adjuvanted
    vaccines, in that they are less likely to cause VAS.
7. Titers do not accurately predict which dogs will respond to another
8. It is misrepresentation, a deceptive trade practice, for a Veterinarian to
    recommend, charge for, or administer a vaccine, where there is no
    scientifically proven benefit to the patient, or that a reasonable client would
    not elect to purchase or have administered if given the information
    necessary to make an informed decision .

1. The duration of immunity for Rabies vaccine, Canine distemper
     vaccine, Canine Parvovirus vaccine, Feline Panleukopenia
     vaccine, Feline Rhinotracheitis, feline Calicivirus, have all been
    demonstrated to be a minimum of 7 years by serology for rabies
    and challenge studies for all others.

 Schultz, Ronald D, Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines: What We Know and What We Don’t Know, Proceedings – Canine Infectious Diseases: From Clinics to Molecular Pathogenesis, Ithaca, NY, 1999, 22.

Minimum Duration of Immunity for Canine Vaccines:

Distemper-        7 years by challenge/15 years by serology

Parvovirus –      7 years by challenge/ 7 years by serology

Adenovirus -    7 years by challenge/ 9 years by serology

Canine rabies – 3 years by challenge/ 7 years by serology

Fishman B & Scarnell J, Persistence of protection against infectious canine hepatis virus, Vet Rec, 99, 509. 1976

 Scott FW, Geissinger C, Long-term immunity in cats vaccinated with an inactivated trivalent vaccine, Am J Vet Res, 60(5): 652-8, May 1999.

7.5 years DOI by challenge

 Lappin M R, Andrews J, Simpson D, Jensen WA, Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Feline Herpesvirus 1, Feline Calcivirus, and Feline Parvovirus infection in cats, J AVMA, 220(1): 38-42, Jan 1, 2002

3 years DOI by challenge.

Vaccines for diseases like distemper and canine parvovirus, once administered to adult animals, provide lifetime immunity.

 Schultz, Ronald D., “Are we vaccinating too much?” JAVMA, No. 4, August 15, 1995, pg. 421.

 Canine distemper and adenovirus 2 vaccines both provide lifelong immunity. (Schultz)

There is the mistaken assumption that if we recommend annual re-vaccination a greater percentage of the population will be vaccinated.  It doesn’t do any good to over vaccinate one segment of the population and not vaccinate the rest. (Macey)

With modified live virus vaccines like canine parvovirus, canine distemper and feline panleukopenia, calicivirus, and rhinotracheitis the virus in the vaccine must replicate to stimulate the immune system. In a patient that has been previously immunized, antibodies from the previous vaccine will block the replication of the new vaccinal virus. Antibody titers are not significantly boosted. Memory cell populations are not expanded. The immune status of the patient is not enhanced.

After the second rabies vaccination, re-administration of rabies vaccine does not enhance the immune status of the patient at one or two year intervals.

We do not know the interval at which re-administration of vaccines will enhance the immunity of a significant percentage of the pet population, but it is certainly not at one or two year intervals.

 Tizard Ian, Yawei N, Use of serologic testing to assess immune status of companion animals, JAVMA, vol 213, No 1, July 1, 1998.

Modified live vaccines rely on the replication of the agent to trigger a protective immune response. When an animal has maternal or endogenous antibodies at the time of vaccination, the vaccine agent may be neutralized before it can replicate. … It may not be possible to stimulate an additional immune response in that animal.

 HogenenEsch Harm, Dunham Anisa D, Scott-Moncrieff Catharine, Glickman Larry, DeBoer Douglas J, Effect of vaccination on serum concentrations of total and antigen-specific immunoglobulin E in dogs, AJVR, Vol 63, No. 4, April 2002, pg 611-616.

Dogs were injected with rabies vaccine at 16 weeks of age and then annually. Vaccination had no effect on serum concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM as measured at 2 and 3 years of age. Dogs were vaccinated 5 times as puppies and then at 6-month intervals with multivalent (Vanguard 5 L, DAPPCL) vaccines. Such a protocol is rarely used in pet dogs and in kennels. There were no significant differences in the concentration of IgA and IgM at 2 years and 3 years of age

 Gorham, J.R., “Duration of vaccination immunity and the influence on subsequent prophylaxis” JAVMA 149:699-704; 1966.

 Larson L J, Sawchuck S, Bonds M D, Schultz RD, Comparison of Antibody Titers Among Dogs Vaccinated, One, Two, Three Years Previously, Proceedings of 80th Meeting of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases, CRWD, Chicago, IL, 1999.

 Wolf, Alice M., Vaccinations-What’s right? What’s not? Compendium on Continuing Education, Schering-Plough Animal Health, 1999, pg. 32.

 In studies Schultz performed at the Univ. of Wisconsin, 106 dogs vaccinated within the previous 1 to 4 years, were each given a canine parvovirus booster vaccination. Only one of the 106 dogs showed a significant increase in serum antibody titer following the booster. These results show that revaccination does not enhance antibody levels or improve immunity because the vaccine virus is neutralized before it can reach the memory T and B cells. The immunity provided by previous vaccination not only protects against the virulent disease but also prevents response to revaccination.

 Wolf Alice, Vaccines of the Present and Future, Proceedings of the World Animal Veterinary Congress, Vancouver 2001.

The recommendation for annual re-vaccination is a practice that was officially started in 1978. This recommendation was made without any scientific validation of the need to booster immunity so frequently. In fact the presence of good humoral antibody levels blocks the anamnestic response to vaccine boosters just as maternal antibody blocks the response in some young animals.

 Schultz, Ronald D., “Current and future canine and feline vaccination programs”, Veterinary Medicine, March 1998, pg. 243.

The patient receives no benefit and may be placed at serious risk when an unnecessary vaccine is given. Few or no scientific studies have demonstrated a need for cats or dogs to be revaccinated. Annual vaccination for diseases caused by CDV, CPV2, FPLP and FeLV has not been shown to provide a level of immunity any different from the immunity in an animal vaccinated and immunized at an early age and challenged years later. We have found that annual revaccination with the vaccines that provide long-term immunity provides no demonstrable benefit.

 Schultz, Ronald D, The Vaccine Controversy: What Vaccines Do Cats and Dogs Really Need and How Often Do They Need To Be Vaccinated? Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

There was never a scientific study performed to show that CDV, CAV, CPV, or rabies virus needs to be given annually to be effective, or that if they are given annually they are more effective. There is data available for the dog and cat to show that modified live CDV, CAV, and CPV given seven years previously and killed PLP, FeCV, and FeHV given seven years previously provided the same immunity as if these products had been given one year prior to challenge with virulent organisms.

 Phillips, Tom R. and Schultz, Ronald D, “Canine and Feline Vaccines”, Current Veterinary Therapy XI, ed. Kirk and Bonagura, pg. 202, 205, WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA 1992.

Almost without exception there is no immunologic requirement for annual re-vaccination. Immunity to viruses persists for years or for the life of the animal. Furthermore re-vaccination with most viral vaccines fails to stimulate the anamnestic response as a result of interference by existing antibody. The practice of annual vaccination in our opinion should be considered of questionable efficacy.

 Klingborg Donald, Principles of Vaccination, AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents, Policy on Biologics, April 2002.

The one- year re-vaccination frequency recommendation found on many vaccine labels is based on historical precedent, and not on scientific data.

Re-vaccination of patients with sufficient immunity does not add measurably to their disease resistance, and may increase their risk of adverse post vaccination events.

 Schultz, Ronald D., “Are we vaccinating too much?” JAVMA, no. 4, August 15, 1995, pg. 421.

 Dr Schultz said “The client is paying for something with no effect or the potential for an adverse reaction.”

2. Dogs over 6 weeks of age do not develop disease from canine
    corona virus.

 Schultz, Ronald D., “Are we vaccinating too much?” JAVMA,  No. 4, August 15, 1995, pg. 421.

 Schultz, Ronald D., “Current and future canine and feline vaccination programs”, Veterinary Medicine, March 1998, pg. 251.

 Wolf, Alice M., Vaccinations-what’s right? What’s not? Compendium on CE, Schering-Plough Animal Health, 1999, pg. 32,33.

 Paul, Michael A., Vaccinations-what’s right? What’s not? Compendium on CE, Schering-Plough Animal Health, 1999, pg. 32,33.

3.  In Texas, there are an average of twelve cases per year of
      Leptospirosis in dogs testing positive at the Texas Veterinary
      Medical Diagnostic Lab. It is estimated by the Texas
      Department of Health that there are 6 million dogs in Texas.

*(Antec samples are all sent to the TVMDL, Idexx samples are sent to Michigan, consequently Texas results are not available.)

 Angulo, A. B. DVM, MS, PhD, ACVM, Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab, College Station, Texas, Personal phone conferences 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001.

 Tizard, Ian R. Veterinary Immunology an Introduction, 6th Ed, Saunders 2000 pg ix

It serves no useful purpose to exaggerate the importance of an infection in order to sell vaccines.

 Carter C, Angulo AB, Sneed L, Ronald N, Arvizo ER,
A Diagnositic Laboratory Update On Leptospirosis in Texas, Texas Veterinarian, April 2003, pg 30-43.

4. Lyme disease is not found in Texas
     Lyme disease is caused by a bacterial organism, Borrelia
     burgdoferi. It is spread by the vector tick, Ixodes scapularis.

Propagation and Transmission requires a complex reservoir host relationship, whereby the vector tick nymphal stages feed on the reservoir deer mouse for two years. In Texas the Ixodes tick feed on lizards, which are not a reservoir for Lyme disease.

Ticks take two years to mature in the colder Northern climates where snow stays on the ground for prolonged periods of time in the winter. In southern climates the ticks mature in one year ,which would not allow for concentration of enough Borrelia organism to spread the disease.

The incubation period for Lyme disease is 5 months. Although a dog could become infected with Lyme disease while traveling to the  New England area, Texas A&M University has not documented one case of Lyme disease in a dog that has lived exclusively in Texas.

Confusion and misdiagnosis of Lyme disease arises from the following:

1. Lyme disease is a vogue diagnosis, and is therefore potentially over-diagnosed.

2. Commonly used testing for Lyme disease will yield false positive test results for dogs with periodontal disease, Ehrlichia, and other tick borne rickettsial diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis.

3. In Texas we have a disease that look identical to Lyme disease. Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness or STARI, also called Masters Disease, is caused by Borrelia lonestari, and spread by the vector tick Amblyomma americanum, or the Lone Star Tick. Vaccination for Lyme disease will not protect against STARI.

Greene CE, Appel MJG, Straubinger RK, Lyme Borreliosis, Greene's Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 2nd ED, 1998, WB Saunders,P 282-292.

Schillhorn van Veen TW, Murphy AJ, Colmery B, False positive Borrelai burgdoferi antibody titers
associated with periodontal disease in dogs, Veterinary Record, 1993, 132, 512.

Little S, Southern tick-associated rash illness; A newly recognized tick-borne disease, DVM Best Practices, June 2003, pg 13-15.

 5. Antibody Titers do not predict if a patient will respond to
re-administration of a vaccine with enhanced immunity.

Titers don’t take into effect cell mediated immunity, which is the most important aspect of disease protection for a number of diseases. Titers don’t asses the ability of memory cells, B and T lymphocytes, which can live up to 20 years or more, to regenerate an immune response. You can have a negative titer and if the pet is exposed, memory cells can respond within hours to regenerate enough antibodies for protective immunity.

Paul M, Report of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Task Force: 2003 Canine Vaccine Guidelines, Recommendations, and Supporting Literature, AAHA Foundation, March 2003.

2000 Report of American Association of Feline Practitioners and Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines, pg. 15 & 16.

Tizard Ian, Yawei N, Use of serologic testing to assess immune status of companion animals, JAVMA, vol 213, No 1, July 1, 1998.

Wolf, Alice M., Vaccinations-what’s right? What’s not? Compendium on CE, Schering-Plough Animal Health, 1999, pg. 32,33. 

Wolf Alice M, Just the Facts About Vaccs: Frequently Asked Questions About Current Vaccination Recommendations and Practice Guidelines, Proceedings from the North American Veterinary Conference, 13, 1999, pg 681.

 Klingborg Donald, Principles of Vaccination, AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents, Policy on Biologics, April 2002.

      Lappin M R, Andrews J, Simpson D, Jensen WA,
      Use  of serologic tests to predict resistance to
      Feline Herpesvirus 1, Feline Calcivirus, and Feline
      Parvovirus infection in cats, J AVMA, 220(1):38-
      42, Jan 1, 2002

     Legal Aspects: Standard of Care, Informed Consent

 2000 Report of American Association of Feline Practitioners and Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines, pg. 11 & 12.

If in a court of law, the quality of care provided by a practitioner is being called into question, the practitioner‘s action will likely be compared to the prevailing “standard of care”.

Although many Veterinarians will, for various reasons resist and delay the adoption of new protocols they should know that adherence to old protocols may, in the light of new knowledge, not protect them as …conformity to custom is not in itself an exercise of care as a mater of law. (30Am Jur2nd Evidence: 1123). Questions about the Veterinarians actions will focus on the following types of inquiry: Did the animal need the vaccine? Was it administered at the proper interval? Did the client give informed consent?

The current informed consent standard is “the reasonable patient standard.”

Under this standard, the scope of disclosure is not measured by the physician’s standards, but rather by the patient’s needs and whether the information is material to the patient’s decision. Would a person in the client’s position, if given the information a reasonable person would use to make an intelligent decision, decide to accept or reject the vaccination? Under this standard a Veterinarian should disclose the nature of the condition, the risk of vaccination vs the benefit, and reasonable alternatives to vaccination. Failure to specifically obtain informed consent could in itself be negligent, and result in liability.

In the U.S. licensed vaccines are subject to the Virus, Serum, and Toxin Act (VSTA) of 1913. The USDA and not the FDA regulates use of animal vaccines.

In 1996 in the U.S. Supreme Court Case; Lynbrook Farms vs Smith Kline Beacham the court upheld the contention that VSTA pre-empts all remedies, and in effect eliminates vaccine manufacturers as defendants in all cases. The Veterinarian bears all liability for professional negligence and breach of warranty.  There are no federal regulations concerning the after the sale (by manufacturers) use of animal vaccines by Veterinarians. The Animal Medicinal Drug use Clarification Act (AMDUCA) gives Veterinarians “discretionary” use of vaccines.

The Texas Deceptive Trade Practice of 1967

17.46 False, misleading, or deceptive trade practices in the conduct of any trade or commerce are hereby declared unlawful and are subject to action by the consumer protection division of this code. The term false or misleading includes but is not limited to the following acts:

5. Representing that goods or services have ... benefits,.... which they do not have.

24 failing to disclose information concerning goods or services which was known at the time of a transaction, if such failure to disclose such information was intended to induce the consumer into a transaction into which the consumer would not have entered had the information been disclosed.

* In the case of a Doctor of Medicine, with a licensed professional, intent does not have to be proven, and lack of knowledge is not a defense, as the doctor has held himself/herself out to be the learned professional.

hundreds of serogroups causing lepto few in vaccine

Postby guest » Fri Feb 06, 2004 8:18 am

J Comp Pathol. 1997 Nov;117(4):311-28. Chronic hepatitis associated with
leptospiral infection in vaccinated beagles. Adamus C, Buggin-Daubie M,
Izembart A, Sonrier-Pierre C, Guigand L, Masson MT, Andre-Fontaine G, Wyers
M. Unite d'Anatomie Pathologique, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes,

ABSTRACT: Sixteen juvenile Beagle dogs originating from a single breeding
colony and regularly vaccinated against Leptospira interrogans (serogroups
Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae) developed a clinical syndrome
characterized by retarded growth, weight loss and often ascites. Over a
10-month period, post-mortem examinations were performed on all affected
dogs. Gross lesions were confined to the liver which was often firm,
tan-coloured and mottled. Microscopically, hepatic lesions ranged from
those of severe chronic hepatitis to mild diffuse hepatocellular
vacuolation, with bile stasis, occasional scattered lymphocytic aggregates
and haemosiderin granulomas. Special stains and electron microscopy
revealed spirochaetes within bile canaliculi. The genus Leptospira was
recognized by immunohistochemical methods in nine dogs. Leptospires were
isolated from six dogs, but serological tests failed to detect significant
titres of antibody to L. interrogans in these animals. A serological survey
of 37 kennelmates demonstrated that 20 dogs had high titres of serogroup
Australis leptospiral antibody, which could not have resulted from
vaccination. These findings strongly suggest a connection between the
presence of leptospires and the hepatic lesions.

Duration of Immunity studies

Postby guest » Sat Feb 14, 2004 8:55 am

Duration of Immunity

Duration of Immunity to Canine Vaccines:
What We Know and Don't Know

Ronald D. Schultz, Professor and Chair
Department of Patho-biological Sciences
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison

It has been common practice since the development of canine vaccines in the late 1950's to administer them annually. The recommendation to vaccinate annually was based on the assumption that immunity would wane in some dogs, thus to ensure immunity in the population, all dogs required revaccination since it was not practical to test each animal for antibody. Little or no research has been done to demonstrate that the practice of annual revaccination has any scientific value in providing greater immunity than would be present if an animal was never revaccinated or was revaccinated at intervals longer than one year.

In 1978 we recommended an ideal vaccination program would be one in which dogs and cats would be revaccinated at one year of age and then every third year thereafter (1). That recommendation was based on a general knowledge of vaccinal immunity, especially the importance of immunologic memory and on duration of protection after natural sub clinical or clinical infections as well as on limited studies we had performed with certain canine and feline vaccines. Since the mid 1970's we have done a variety of studies with various canine vaccines to demonstrate their duration of immunity. From our studies it is apparent, at least to me, that the duration of immunity for the four most important canine vaccines (core vaccines) that the duration of immunity is considerably longer than one year. Furthermore, we have found that annual revaccination, with the vaccines that provide long term immunity, provides no demonstrable benefit and may increase the risk for adverse reactions. We have assessed duration of protective immunity primarily by two procedures; the first is held to be the "gold standard and that is to challenge the vaccinated animal with the virulent organism, the second method is to measure antibody and compare the antibody titer to that which is known to prevent infection (e.g. provide sterile immunity). The studies we report here include challenge studies as well as studies that determine antibody titers. A summary of our results show the following (Table 1).

Table 1: Minimum Duration of Immunity for Canine Vaccines
Vaccine Minimum Duration of Immunity Methods Used to Determine Immunity
Canine Distemper Virus (CDV
Rockbom Strain 7 yrs / 15 yrs challenge / serology
Onderstepoort Strain 5 yrs / 9 yrs challenge / serology
Canine Adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) 7 yrs / 9 yrs challenge-CAV-1 / serology
Canine Parvovirus-2 (CAV-2) 7 yrs challenge / serology
Canine Rabies 3 yrs / 7yrs challenge / serology
Canine parainfluenza 3 yrs. serology
Bordetella bronchiseptica 9 months challenge
Leptospira interrogans ser. canicola ?
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiac ?
Borrelia burgdorfen 1 yr. challenge
Ciardia ?
Canine Coronavirus Lifetime (whether
vaccinated or not
Challenge / serology

The minimum duration of immunity data does not imply that all vaccinated dogs will be immune for the period of time listed, nor does it suggest that immunity may not last longer (e.g. the life of the dog). The percentage of vaccinated animals protected from clinical disease after challenge with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in the present study was greater than 95%.

Although there is much more that we need to know about duration of immunity to canine vaccines the information we have at present provides adequate justification for the vaccination recommendations that I and others have made and continue to make regarding frequency of vaccination (2)

1. Schultz, RD. and F.W. Scott. Canine & Feline Immunization. In: Symposium on Practical Immunology. R.D. Schultz, Ed., Vet Clinics of N. Am., Nov. 1978, W.B. Saunders Co.

2. Schultz, R.D. Current and Future Canine and feline vaccination programs. Vet Med 3: No. 3, 233-254, 1998.

WSJ pet vaccination article

Postby guest » Sat Feb 14, 2004 3:33 pm

Veterinarians Question Vaccination Procedures
Vaccinations can have adverse effects, studies show
By Rhonda L. Rundle

July 31

After receiving a reminder in the mail from his veterinarian, Jim Schwartz
took his 11-year-old poodle, Moolah, for her annual rabies shot. A few
weeks later she fell ill and was diagnosed with an autoimmune disease. As
her suffering worsened, Mr. Schwartz put her down.

THERE’S NO PROOF that the rabies shot killed Moolah and Mr. Schwartz didn’t
immediately suspect any link. But when the retired financial planner
learned that some veterinarians are vaccinating pets less frequently
because of possible fatal side effects, he was furious. “No dog should have
to go through what Moolah did,” he says.
Evidence is building that annual vaccination of dogs and
cats performed for diseases such as rabies, distemper and parvovirus may
not be necessary and could even be harmful. Vaccines licensed by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture are tested to ensure they protect pets against
disease, usually for one year. But the tests don’t detect long-term side
effects, or measure the duration of a vaccine’s effectiveness. Recent and
continuing studies at several universities suggest that protection from
vaccines may last for years, which would make annual shots for some
diseases a waste of money at the very least.

Fears of vaccine-induced diseases date back more than 40 years. But a sharp
increase during the past decade in cancerous tumors among cats, between the
shoulder blades where vaccines typically are injected, has spurred studies.
Some have found a higher-than-expected incidence of side effects. “We see
health problems in dogs for which we have no explanation. The classic one
is autoimmune disease,” says Larry Glickman, professor of epidemiology at
Purdue University’s School of Veterinary Medicine in West Lafayette, Ind.,
who is studying possible links with vaccinations. “We see an epidemic of
hyperthyroidism in cats today, and we suspect that these are happening
because we’re over-vaccinating our pets.”

Dr. Glickman and his colleagues theorize that repeated vaccination
causes dogs to produce antibodies against their own tissue. The antibodies
are caused by contaminants in the vaccine introduced in the manufacturing
process. While the amounts are minuscule, they gradually accumulate with
repeated vaccinations over the years. But Dr. Glickman cautions that more
research is needed before a clear link can be established between antibody
levels and autoimmune disease.

Vaccination recommendations for cats and dogs vary around the country. Most
states require rabies vaccinations every three years, while a handful of
states as well as some individual cities and counties have mandated
annual shots due to local problems with rabies in wild animals. Some other
vaccinations are given only when a pet’s lifestyle or environment exposes
it to a particular risk, such as Lyme disease.

Pet diseases other than rabies aren’t a threat to people, thus vaccinations
aren’t required by law. But veterinarians and vaccine makers have
traditionally recommended annual booster shots against potentially fatal
diseases such as distemper and parvovirus in dogs and herpesvirus in cats.
In a policy statement last year, the American Veterinary Medical
Association acknowledged that the practice of annual vaccinations is based
on “historical precedent” and “not on scientific data.”
The emerging evidence of health risks is prompting some vets to
change their practices. “We’re now doing 40% less vaccinations than five
years ago,” says Kathleen Neuhoff, a veterinarian in Mishawaka, Ind., and
president of the American Animal Hospital Association, Lakewood, Colo.

“My own pets are vaccinated once or twice as pups and kittens, then
never again except for rabies,” Ronald D. Schultz, chairman of the
University of Wisconsin’s Department of Pathobiological Sciences, wrote in
the March 1998 issue of Veterinary Medicine.

Some critics of annual shots accuse some vets of ignoring research
about vaccine risks for financial reasons. “Vets are afraid they will go
broke” without regular vaccines, which account for about 20% of their
practice income, says Bob Rogers, a Spring, Texas, veterinarian and
outspoken critic of current practices.
Other vets deny that financial motives are involved. (“No one who
is motivated by money would ever become a veterinarian,” Dr. Neuhoff says.)
“The concern is that if we move too quickly to decrease vaccine frequency
across the board, we may be opening the door for some animals to become
infected when we could have prevented the problem,” says Todd R. Tams,
chief medical officer of VCA Antech Inc.,in Los Angeles, the nation’s
largest owner of veterinary hospitals.”
No one truly knows how long protection from vaccines lasts. Vaccine
makers say that proving their duration would be expensive and would require
large numbers of animals to be isolated for years.
One company, Pfizer Inc., decided to test its one-year rabies
vaccine on live animals and discovered it lasted for at least three years.
It sells the identical formula simply packaged under different
labels Defensor 1 and Defensor 3 to satisfy different state vaccination

titers do not decrease with time

Postby guest » Fri Jul 09, 2004 7:12 am

Bohm M, Thompson H, Weir A, Hasted AM, Maxwell NS, Herrtage ME.

Queen's Veterinary School Hospital, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES.

Antibody titres to canine distemper (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine adenovirus (CAV) were measured in 144 adult dogs that had not been vaccinated for between three and 15 years. Protective antibodies to CPV were present in 95 per cent of the population, to CDV in 71.5 per cent and to CAV in 82 per cent. The prevalence of protective titres did not decrease with increasing time interval from the last vaccination for any of the three diseases studied. Booster vaccination increased the dogs' CAV titres. For comparative purposes, 199 puppies were sampled at the time of their first and second vaccination. In the case of CPV and CAV a significantly higher proportion of the adult dogs were protected than of the puppies immediately after they were vaccinated. Natural CPV boosting was strongly suspected because the dogs had significantly higher titres three years after their primary vaccination than two weeks after it and three unvaccinated dogs had acquired protective antibody levels uneventfully. There was no evidence of natural exposure to CDV.

canine corona vaccine

Postby guest » Sat Jul 10, 2004 7:48 am

Ford Richard, SWVS 2003, '"The best evidence that dogs over 8 weeks of age do not develope disease from corona virus comes from the vaccine manufacturers themselves, and the studies they submitted to the USDA. . They have never been able to do a challenge on the vaccine because the control dogs do not get sick."

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